Final year degree project for engineers Final year projects based on microcontrollers
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at89c2051 motor controller and other light projects
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Wednesday, June 8, 2011

Analog-to-digital converter (ADC ) Interfacing with microcontroller

This post is the continuetion of last post in which we discussed the Analog interfacing with microcontroller. We learnt that the transducers required Analog to digital converters in middle to have interfacing with microcontrollers. This post is about the ADC interfacing and working.
Thus we can say that we need to have some means to convert the analog signal of transducers into digital signal so that computers can handle it and further processing could be done.
Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is a device which can convert analogue voltage to digital numbers so that microcontrollers can handle and process the data. This is required to obtain some meaningful results or any useful work with micro controller. ADCs are the most widely used devices for data acquisition and control. Some microcontrollers have built in ADCs but the 8051 microcontroller don't have any built in ADC. So we have to use external ADC for said purpose. There some common and important features about ADCs. for example, resolution of adc, response time of adc , mode of work and method of conversion. ADC has n-bit resolution, where n can be 8, 12, 16 or even 24 bits. The higher-resolution ADC provides a smaller step size.Step size is the smallest change that can be recognized by ADC. The heart of any current computational device relies upon digital bits, voltage states which can be at either high or low voltages. One of the simplest constructions, the ADC, converts an analog voltage signal to a digital one. Analog to Digital converters, and their counterparts, Digital to Analog converters are used all the time in electronics. Indeed, they provide the only method by which one may interface a digital system with the real world, which functions in analog.Digital data acquisition and conversion systems are ubiquitous, being found in virtually every modern communication, digital signal processing (DSP), electronic instrument, and micro-controller applications. Regardless of the sophistication of the application, a data acquisition and/or conversion system will consist of some pre-processing elements, a domain conversion device (digital to analog conversion (ADC) or analog to digital conversion (DAC)), controller, and post-processing agent.

8-Bit resolution ADCs:-

An ADC has a resolution of 8 bits, the range is divided into 2^8=256 steps (from 0 – 255). But there are 255 quantization levels.
how step size of ADC is calculated equation for step size

Where the Vcc is the reference voltage of ADC with n-bit resolution.Below is table in which Resolution versus Step Size for ADC (if Vcc = 5V) is provided.
Resolution versus Step Size for ADC
ADC0804 Chip (Free Running Mode)
There are some control PINs and some input and other are output PINS of ADC0804. The pin configuration of ADC0804 is shown in the figure below.
ADC0804 Chip Free Running Mode
Important pins are discussed here in some detail.
CS  :Active low input used to activate the ADC0804 chip.

RD (data enable)  : Active low input used to get converted data out of the ADC0804 chip. When CS = 0, if a high-to-low pulse is applied to the RD pin, the 8-bit digital output shows up at the D0-D7 data pins.

WR (start conversion): Active low input used to inform the ADC0804 to start the conversion process. If CS = 0 when WR makes a low-to-high transition, the ADC0804 starts converting the analog input value of Vin to an 8-bit digital number. When the data conversion is complete, the INTR pin is forced low by the ADC0804.
CLK IN and CLK R : Connect to external capacitor and resistor for self-clocking, f = 1/(1.1RC). The clock affect the conversion time and this time cannot be faster than 110 micros.

INTR (end of conversion) This is an active low output pin. When the conversion is finished, it goes low to signal the CPU that the converted data is ready to be picked up. After INTR goes low, we make CS = 0 and send a high-to-low pulse to the RD pin to get the data out of the ADC0804 chip.
ADC0804 Chip step size calculation

Vin (+) and Vin (-) :These are the differential analog inputs where Vin = Vin (+) - Vin (-). Often the Vin (-) pin is connected to ground and the Vin (+) pin is used as the analog input to be converted to digital.
VCC : This is the +5V power supply. It is also used as a reference voltage when the Vref/2 (pin 9) input is open.
ADC0804 Chip step size calculation ADC0804 has resolution of 8 bits
Pin Vref/2 is open, Step size =19.6mV

Vref/2 :- Input voltage pin used for the reference voltage. If this pin is open, the analog input voltage for the the ADC is ranged from 0 to 5 volts.This is optional input pin. It is used only when the input signal range is small. When pin 9 is at 2V, the range is 0-4V, i.e. Twice the voltage at pin 9. Pin 6 (V+), Pin 7(V-): The actual input is the difference in voltages applied to these pins. The analogue input can range from 0 to 5V.

D0 – D7 output PINs of ADC: D0 – D7 are the digital data output pins. These are the tri-state buffered and the converted data is accessed only when CS = 0 and RD is forced low. The output voltage:

Analog Ground and Digital Ground :- Analog ground is connected to the ground of the analog signal while digital ground is connected to the ground of the Vcc pin.
Operation of the ADC
The analog signal should be connected to Vin.
To start conversion: WR should be pulled low and RD should be high.
When the conversion is complete, the ADC0804 will pull INT low.
To make the binary result available at the outputs of the ADC, RD should be low.

Digital Audio Compression Storage and Retrieval System (DACSRS),‑The ADC0804 is a successive approximation type A/D converter ,connection of temperature sensor with ADC0804 ,Automated Object Avoiding Robot Project,Transducer coverts physical variable to an electrical signal ,Design and implementation of frequency converter and signal recovery circuits. ,ADC0804 IC is a CMOS 8-bit A/D converter featuring fast conversion times,DATA CONVERSION,LEVEL & TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER, How to build a digital oscilloscope based on the ADC0804 Flashy acquisition board The interfacing of LM35 Temperature Sensor using ADC0804


  1. Dear Sir,
    I need your help regarding a problematic sheet cutter controlled through “AT 89C 2051-24PU”.The scenario is as under:

    The sheet cutter’s sensor and one PCB were stolen from my workshop. I am owing a small workshop having three cutters by a non famous the one is not working .I have arranged the PCB containing “ AT 89C 2051-24PU” and installed it in my cutter but it did not work properly.Then I swapped the PCB with one of my cutters and it worked fine.

    Is it possible to copy the program from my old cutter to the new PCB .A friend asked me that it is impossible,but I am of the view that it is a programmable IC and the other nothing is impossible .I have not fair knowledge about controllers. Would you please advise me about updating my controller right with the other units of same brand and type.
    thanking you in anticipation.

  2. @ Abdur Rehman
    The microcontroller program can be copied using Universal programmer.
    But plz note that there are security checks and bits that are fused to avoid copying program.
    now i can suggest, you go through a try and check if it is possible then do it.


    I would like to do my final project in ( Electronic meters for power calculation of electricity consumption) and (2.Electronic meters for volume calculation of Gas consumption.)
    i would be very pleased if you could help me to achieve these ideas, i need a Black diagram and the the best language to be used in the Project

    thank you very much in advance for your help


  4. Hello

    I am new right here at and had been wondering if anyone is aware of anywhere I can purchase some Arnette Sunglasses like a cheap or even discount price.

    I am going on a skiing vacation in the near future as well as I've heard that these types of eyeglasses are fantastic however I am unable to afford much.

    many thanks

    Phil Smith

  5. Hello there,

    I am in need of help,

    I am working on my final design project. And in this project I am working on computer controlled helicopter flight. In this project I will control the movement of the toy helicopter from PC keyboard instead of the remote controller that comes with helicopter. So I am using 8051 microcontroller, Max232IC , C language for programming . I need any help needed to do this project I really appreciate if you let me know what kind of help you provide and the cost of your service to do this project.

  6. @ Habib, Shemsu A
    The project " controlling of helicopter flight through computer using microcontroller 8051" is a nice idea.
    I can only help you in circuit design and coding. But please note that, this will be only help, not the whole work.

    I want to say, major work will be performed by you. Where you want ONLY help, i will guide you, if i could.

  7. Hello there,my name is Shemsu and I am working on my senior design project. in this project I am working on computer controlled helicoter flight, i mean toy helicopter ofcourse. instead of using the remote conroller the comes with the helicopter we will just use keys from the keyboard just to turn it left-right or up and down so in the project I will use AT89C52 Microcontroller (8051) and Max232 IC chip. so please what help can I get from you. I am willing to cover the charges that are needed to do the project. please let me know if you can help in any form. Best Regards Shemsu

  8. @ Shems Habib

    The control of helicoter flight using microcontroller AT89c51 and computer and serial communication through RS232 is a good project.
    I will help you in this project regarding circuit design and coding.
    But, major of work you have to do by yourself. where you feel difficulty, you can ask question ,i will reply and guide you to bring some appropriate solution to complete the project.

  9. Thank you and your help is greatly appreciated,

    I have been working on proposal of the project and the coding of the project. However my main issue at the moment is to come up with the software and hardware specifications and I am planning to use C language coding and planning to use RS-232 card and Max 323 IC. I need your guidance on how to get started on the circuitry and the coding of the project.

  10. @ Habib, Shemsu A
    There is a lot of information and helping material including circuit diagrams and coding example of RS232 communication on this blog and over internet also.
    Go through some relvent post on subject max232 interfacing with microcontroller and computer. and make some rough circuit diagram, e-mail me, and i will check it.
    for coding keil C51 is a good choice.
    You can download evaluation version from keil website.
    "Keil Embedded Development Tools for ARM, Cortex-M, Cortex-R4, 8051 "
    further as you will do some work on project, you can ask question related to project of 8051 development.

  11. I am working on my final design project. And in this project I am working on computer controlled helicopter flight. In this project I will control the movement of the toy helicopter from PC keyboard instead of the remote controller that comes with helicopter.

    so far I have done:
    hardware block diagram- attached
    software block diagrram - attached
    downloaded C51 compiler from Kiel
    my proposal is already accepted

    i am buying 40 Pin microcontroller Board, AT89C52 Microcontroller , MAX 232 Integrated Circuit (IC), Radio controlled (RC) toy helicopter

    waht do you think of what I am buying? are they the right hardware for this project.

    when Remote control of helicopter is connected with At89C52 microcontroller which will take digital high and low values from computer but how do I interfacce 5volt from the At89C52 to the remote cotroller of the helicopter.

    please find attached document for you to help me in circuit and coding

  12. @ muna sani
    You are going in right direction sofar.
    The document you sent me was with docx extension, that i can not open, so plz send with .doc. This is easy by save as, command at your MS office.

  13. here re attached with .doc file

    what kind of development board i need for AT89C52 microcontroller

    Take a look at my diagrams from .doc file that was attached from previous e-mail and please i need you help on circuit digagram on this project (computer controlled helicopter flight using microcontroller At89c52).

  14. @ muna sani
    1. I have no idea about the development boards available in market related to your project.
    2. Why not you draw your own circuit diagram and then go for hardware. It is not a big issue, i think.
    3. Ok, If you can not make the circuit diagram of the project, then i will do it for you and send to you.

  15. did you take a look at my diagrams from .doc file that was attached from previous e-mail and please i need you help on circuit digagram on this project.
    did you get my email that I sent you to the yahoo address. I did not get response back from you.
    yes, I want you to do for me the coding and circuit diagram of the project
    so, how can we meet and discuss the project please let me know.

  16. @ muna sani

    1. I have checked the circuit diagram and flow chart of the microcontroller project. It is fine.
    we can meet on skype or yahoo or msn.
    best e-mail address is

  17. Hi Dr. Rana, here the attachment about the jobs I did so far this is just for telling them I did something you can take a look at it and do the powerpoint for satus review. we can modify all the job we did sofar and go with your convinence or what evere you think it is going to be ok.
    I was able to get signal when I connected per your circuit digram of the switch you send me yesterday

    please check attached connection of the switch

  18. @ muna sani
    Ok, i will read the document of microcontroller 8051 project soon.
    The connection diagram is fine.
    Did you operate the helicopter with these switched and check the response accordingly?

  19. May i know the output data from ADC0804 is Binary/BCD/Hex numbers ?

  20. @ NSW (ADC0804 output):-
    The output og the ADC0804 is 8 bit parallel binary data, so we will get 00000000 digial on ov analog and 11111111 (255) on 5v.

  21. Sir, I am Dattatraya.Please help me regarding the my project "sensorised drip irregation with uc & LCD".Here LCD is used for displaying moisture in different type of four croup field.depending on current and required moisture irregation is done.
    Thank you in advance.

  22. hii sir
    i'm working on a projcet of microcontroller with using adc0804 and pressure sensor .now i,m reading about these and i found a lot features like common mode rejection ,off set voltage i'm so confused should i know about these things or not.
    plz help me sir...

  23. hi sir,
    my project is about to build a 50Hz sine wave into a 8x8 dot matrix,,where first we have generate a 50Hz sine wave, then let this wave to a ADC,take the samples,which depends on the length of the matrix,,then put this into the 8085 micro-controller and then show this wave into a dot if u give me some advice how can we start or where from we start??

  24. I know this ωeb pаge giνeѕ quality
    based cοntent and additional infοrmation, is therе any
    оther web page whіch provіdes such thingѕ in quality?

    Ηere is my blog pоst - youtube converter

  25. pls help me to calculate weight through NAU7802 and how to initialize the NAU7802 ADC

  26. How many samples that we can take for a temperature sensor using ADC? like our voice sampling rate could you please help me about this


Please note that my helps are not for free.
So, send me your problems and pay money for solution.ok
This is comments section. Here you are requested to write your questions and problems about the microcontroller and electronics projects. Write the questions or comments in such a way that, it have all necessary information, so that i can understand and reply.If you want to send pictures and codes then e-mail me (
All comments will be highly appriciated.


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    I am free lancer to design electronic circuits and programming or coding of microcontroller or microprocessor based projects. Interested people can contact me. Student of Engineering, learner of microcontroller can also contact for help in their projects. Please write your questions in comment section or directly e-mail to me. My e-mail address is : Your E-mail should contain Subject: "Help on microcontroller 8051 project" Otherwise e-mail may be ignored. Help will also be provided on " final year degree project" in the field of code writing, microcontroller based project ddesiging and report writing of microcontroller projects. Contact for online lectures and classes of microcontroller also. Post your comments in relvent posts for quick response in 8051 projects posts.


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sensing and controlling (1) Pressure sensor and transducer (1) Printer Port's addresses in the BIOS Data Area (1) Program counter address (1) Programmable Gain Amplifiers (1) Programming Aspects (1) Programming Aspects of Moving message display project using 8051assembly language program for lcd (1) Project Description (1) Properties of graphite (1) Pseudo-Absolute Encoder (1) RAM of MCU (1) RAM of microcontroller (1) ROM-to-RAM ratio (1) RS-232 Level Converter (1) RS-232 Level Converters (1) RS-232 Standard (1) RS-232 communication (1) RS-232 serial communication (1) RS232 with 8051 (1) RS232 and Microcontroller 80s52 (1) RS232 and microcontroller schematics and C code (1) RS232 communication (1) RS232 serial communication (1) Receive Data (1) Receive Interrupt of 8051 (1) Register Banks of 8052 Microcontroller (1) Relative Humidity Project (1) Reluctive (1) Remote apps for PC and Mac (1) Remotely view (1) Resonant Wire (1) Routine interfacing LCD with 8051 Programmer's Corner. (1) Rs-232 smoke analyzer (1) SAKURA BOARD (1) SBUF and SCON (1) SBUF register (1) SCR control (1) SERIAL PORT REGISTERS (1) SMS Based Controlling Machines Using GSM Mobile and microcontroller 8051 (1) SN7447 (1) SN7447AN decoder (1) SN74LS373 Latch with 3-State Outputs and interface with microcontroller (1) Schematic Circuit Diagram Speedometer Accurate measurement of speed (1) Science/Research (1) Scratchpad Registers (1) Security Camera Systems (1) Selection of Humidity sensor or transducer or transmitter (1) Sensor (1) Sensors (1) Serial Communication (1) Serial Communication RS-232 (1) Serial Communication microcontroller to PC (1) Serial Interfacing of Microcontroller 8051 in Automatic Car Parking Project (1) Serial or Parallel (1) Servo Actuator and DC Motor. (1) Setting the Serial Port Baud Rate (1) Seven (1) Seven Segment Displays of Pressure Monitoring Project (1) Seven Segment Subroutine (1) Signal control on ADC0804 (1) Silicon Serial Number (1) Smartphone (1) Software Download (1) Software Freuency meter and pulse width measurement (1) Software writting procedures serial port communication (1) Solenoid Valve (1) Solenoid Valve Control System Using 8051 Microcontroller (1) Solenoid Valve Controls (1) Solenoid Valve Supplier (1) Start your car remotely (1) Static Power Switches (1) Stepper Motor Control System Interfaced with Personal Computer (1) Stepper Motor Control System Interfaced with Personal Computer serial port baud rate (1) Stepper Motor Subroutine (1) Stepper motor control in assembly lanuage (1) Strain Gage (1) Strobed Input (1) Supply Check Valves (1) Supporting AT commands (1) Synchronous Serial Communication (1) TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER (1) TEXT display (1) TIMER CONTROL (1) TRIAC control circuits (1) TTL (1) TTL CMOS logic level (1) TTL Compatible Inputs and Outputs (1) Temperature Controls (1) Temperature and Humidity Data Logger (1) Temperature sensors (1) Testing Circuit humidity sensing project (1) The Interface of ADC0804 with microcontroller 8051 (1) The MICROCONTROLLERS (1) The interface of DS17885 with at89c51 (1) Timer and counters circuits (1) Timer and counters of 8051 (1) Timer/counters (1) Transducer Types (1) Transmit Data (1) Two types of connectors are used for RS232 communication (1) U shaped tubes (1) UP and Down counter (1) USB programmer of microcontroller (1) Ultimate PC Remote Control (1) UltralISO (1) Understanding 8051 (1) Universal Blue Tooth controller software (1) Universal PC remote control from your phone or tabletRemotely browse your (1) Use of MICROCONTROLLER in Pressure Monitoring Project (1) VB6 RS-232 serial communication example program with microcontroller 8051 or PIC or AVR (1) VB6 serial interface (1) VLC (1) Von Neuman architecture (1) WDTV Media Players Remote app (1) WIN-Remote (1) Waveform Digitizer Capturing (1) Weather AnemometerRoom HumidityHome HumidityHumidity Cabinet (1) What are the time trigger applications (1) What is null modem cable (1) Wi-Fi Based Home Automation System (1) Wifi (1) Windows Media Player (1) Windows PC over Wi-Fi or Bluetooth (1) Windows Phone 8 and BlackBerry (1) Wireless Humidity Sensor (1) Wireless sensor based Vehicle central Lock Control System using Microcontroller (1) XBMC (1) XOR (1) ZERO-CROSS OPTOISOLATER TRIAC DRIVER OUTPUT MOC3041 (1) Zero crossing Optocoupler MOC3041 (1) access control car (1) accuracy of adc (1) addresses in hexadecimal are 378h (1) algorithm for pulse width measurements (1) alphanumaric LCD (1) analog input voltage to the ADC (1) analog temperature sensor (1) analog to digital conversion (1) analog voltage signal generation of 0 to 10V (1) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) (1) and 37Ah (1) and DS1685 PC real-time clocks (1) and Storing (1) android gmote server linux (1) android market (1) android remote (1) anode (1) apps for special education (1) assembly code circuits (1) assembly code projects (1) assigned devices LPT1 (1) aston martin (1) at89c51 as counter (1) atmel 2051 (1) atmel humidity Assembly Language code (1) atmel serial eeprom (1) autocop car security system (1) automatic car parking system using microcontroller (1) automatic car parking system with microcontroller (1) automatic control systems (1) avr i2c (1) best wireless camera security system (1) better resolution (1) bigger LCD (1) biomedical instrumentation (1) blocked motor start rotating (1) blue control modern (1) board development and fabrication (1) brown out detector (1) build simple calculator using keypad (1) buzzer siron (1) byte read (1) c language code (1) c language program (1) c++ code (1) calibration of ADC and DACs (1) capacitive (1) car parking and microcontroller (1) carbon dioxide (1) carbon monoxide (1) characteristics of analog sensor (1) charging the battery (1) circuit design for a elevator (1) circuit diagram (1) circuit diagram for intestinal sound detector (1) circuit diagram multiplex led (1) circuit diagram of moving message display (1) circuit diagram of serial communication via rs232 (1) circuit diagram of the microcontroller project for humidity and clocking (1) circuit diagram to interface LCD with Microcontroller 8051 (1) circuit disgram of stepper motor (1) circuit prototyping (1) clock vis (1) clocked out (1) code (1) code for gsm modem interfacing with p89v51rd2 microcontroller (1) code for microcontroller (1) commands of lcs (1) comminication (1) common (1) common 8N1 format (1) communicating direct with the aircraft computer (1) communication of the data between PC and RAM. (1) compatible digital interface (1) computer (1) condition (1) conio.h (1) construction of a pressure sensing system using 8051 (1) control cars remotely (1) control solid state relays (1) control stepper motor with 8051 (1) control system with 8051 (1) controller 8051 led display (1) convert the analog voltages to digital signal (1) cotton industry pressure monitoring project (1) crestron prodigy remote control (1) crestron remote control system (1) crestron universal remote control (1) current to voltage conversion circuit (1) current-carrying capacity (1) dac interfacing with 8051 microcontroller circuit diagram (1) data acquisition system using 8051 (1) data communication (1) data loging (1) database editor (1) db9 cable (1) db9 connector (1) db9 price (1) db9 serial (1) db9 serial port (1) debugging testing (1) decimal output value of an 8-bit ADC (1) decoded 74ls138 (1) designed pressure sensor and transducer (1) diagram (1) difference between timer and counter microcontroller (1) digital clocks and digital watches (1) digital clocks and watches (1) digital converters (1) digital electronics (1) digital gate 74LS08 (1) digital logic (1) digital presentation of pressure (1) digitally operated valve (1) directly converts displacement (1) disk (1) display (1) dos.h (1) download codes for free (1) download gmote (1) dsp i2c (1) duty cycle controller (1) easy way to monitor pulses from heart on finger (1) electromagnetic (1) electromagnetic switches (1) embedded system products (1) emission (1) emulator kit (1) encoder (1) ericsson at command microcontroller (1) example programs (1) exit gate motor (1) external AT24C512 EEPROM memory (1) external and internal counters of 8051 (1) flash architecture (1) flashing text message (1) flow measurements (1) flowrate height of fluid (1) for media players (1) free remote apps iPhone and iPod Touch (1) free softwares full versions (1) frequency counter (1) frequency counter in proteus (1) fullversions (1) gmote (1) gmote 2.0 (1) gmote connection problem (1) gmote vs gmote remote (1) gom player (1) graphics.h (1) gsm control 8051 (1) handshaking and control (1) hardware media players (1) heart beat counter using microcontroller 8051 (1) hex 24 to bcd 8052 (1) hexagonal (1) hidden switches (1) hole (1) home appliance control (1) home automation (1) home security system (1) home security system microcontroller code (1) homemade materials (1) how clear lcd screen (1) how to calculate the checksum? What are HEX files? 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(1) microcontroller board to control Solenoid Valves (1) microcontroller connect pc (1) microcontroller interface with LCD (1) microcontroller pwm (1) microcontroller timer (1) microcontrollers or microprocessors (1) microprocessor assembly language code (1) mini project interfacing microcontroller pressure sensor (1) motor protection (1) mouse pointer (1) moving message display using 8051 microcontroller (1) multiplex LED display (1) multiplex addressing (1) multiplex input (1) multiplex seven segment six digit display (1) multiplexed address and data bus (1) nios i2c (1) noise problem in circuit (1) optical sensor in car parking (1) optocoupler circuit diagram (1) optocoupler interfacing with microcontroller (1) oscillators frequency (1) output PINs of ADC (1) oven proteus optocoupler (1) page read (1) parallel port of PC (1) parallel port programmer (1) pc i o ports (1) photoconductive (1) photovoltaic (1) plump tomato (1) pneumatic pressure (1) pneumatic solenoids (1) port expander (1) power controller (1) pressure sensor adc (1) pressure transducer or proximity (1) pressurized fluids (1) program (1) programmable frequency (1) project for at 89s51 (1) proteus i2c (1) prototype (1) proximity sensor for using liquid level sense connect with microcontroller (1) pulse counter (1) pulse rate of a human heart (1) pulses (1) ratiometric (1) real player (1) receiver and transmitter (1) reg51.h (1) repeatability of results (1) resistance thermometers and thermocouples (1) resistive (1) resolution of adc (1) resolution of sensor (1) road side display boards (1) rpm meter (1) rtc ds1307 based alarm controller avr microcontroller (1) save power motor (1) save your water resources (1) scanner project (1) schmitt-trigger (1) scrolling message (1) scrolling text (1) security car alarm system (1) segment (1) sensors based data acquistion system 8051 (1) sensors based on data acquistion system using 8051 (1) sensors such as a pressure sensor (1) serial data interface between eeprom and microcntroller (1) serial eeprom (1) serial mode of communication (1) serial port (1) serial port RS 232 on 9600 baud rate (1) serial port communication (1) serial port data transfer (1) serial programmer (1) shift registers (1) show image on Graphic LCD (1) sigma-delta modulation (1) signal processing (1) simple for 8052 interfacing project (1) smart phone (1) smoke emission machine (1) smoke emission testing machine (1) smoke opacimeter (1) software (1) software for SGM modem (1) software to acquire data on PC (1) speed of adc (1) stability in response (1) stand-alone 8051 (1) stepper motor 6 wire connection block diagram (1) stepper motors (1) stepping sequences to motor (1) subroutines for lcd (1) sulphur dioxide (1) system abstract car security (1) tachometer sensor (1) tank over flow (1) temperature furnace (1) temperature measurement (1) temperature monitoring and control projects (1) temperature sensor using 8051 and adc (1) text light scrolling (1) textile industry pressure monitoring project (1) thermocouple (1) three stories lift (1) timer (1) touch cases (1) touch firmware (1) touch unlocker (1) transducers (1) transferred to micro controller (1) triac control (1) triac control circuit switches (1) triac lighting-control circuit (1) uln2003 (1) universal remote control android app (1) unln 2003 interface with microcontroller (1) use and types of Analogue Sensors (1) using 8051 counter (1) vehicle security (1) velocity (1) velocity measurement (1) verilog i2c (1) vertical scroll (1) water (1) water level monitoring and control using microcontroller 8051 (1) weatherstation (1) which is better for messuring liquid pulse width (1) which physcial quantity is measured with analog sensors (1) wifi automation (1) wireless car alarms (1) working memory model (1) write byte (1) 微控制器项目和概述 (1)