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Tutorials of microcontroller 8051, A step by step easy to use self learning rapidex

Monday, August 23, 2010

Stepper Motor Control Board

4 The Hardware Description of the Automatic carparking project using microcontroller 8051
4.1 Stepper Motor Control Board
This board have capability to drive four stepper motors but we use only the two. Other two can be used for the further modification in project.

The port 0 is used to drive two motors.P0.0-P0.3 drive one motor while P0.4-P0.7 for second one. A latch is used to sustain the logic level. P3.5 is connected to enable of the latch. Figure 13 shows the complete circuit diagram of stepper motor driver board. An optocoupler is used to separate the ground of the controller and motor.

The microcontroller controls the rotation of motor by energizing one coil of the motor. With each step in the sequence the motor rotates about 1.8 degree. Each motor coil draws a current of 1A.A diode is installed in parallel to the coil of motor to prevent the transistors from high current , due to change in emf of the coil. These diodes are known as free wheeling diodes.

4.2 Sensors Board:

This hardware unit has six photo sensors. Each sensor is connected to one pin of the controller. As shown in figure sensors generate a high pulse as beam is cut by ant small object. Three sensors used to operate one motor. Port1 is dedicated to the sensors as shown in figure. By cutting beam of sensor S1 Motor start rotating in clockwise direction, then cutting the beam of sensor S2 motor stops for some time then start rotating in counter clock wise direction. At the end-cutting beam of S3 motor stops. Same as the working of the second motor using sensors S4, S5 and S6.

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