4. General-Purpose OP-AMP LM324
Low-Voltage, Rail-to-Rail Output Op Amps.The LMX321/LMX358/LMX324 are single/dual/quad,low-cost, low-voltage, pin-to-pin compatible upgrades to the LMV321/LMV358/LMV324 family of general purpose op amps. These devices offer Rail-to-Rail® outputs and an input common-mode range that extends below ground. These op amps draw only 105µA of quiescent current per amplifier, operate from a single +2.3V to +7V supply, and drive 2kΩresistive loads to within 40mV of either rail. The LMX321/ LMX358/ LMX324 are unity-gain stable with a 1.3MHz gain-bandwidth product capable of driving capacitive loads up to 400pF. The combination of low voltage, low cost, and small package size makes these amplifiers ideal for portable/battery-powered equipment.
Upgrade to LMV321/LMV358/LMV324 Family
Single +2.3V to +7V Supply Voltage Range
Available in Space-Saving Packages14-Pin TSSOP (LMX324)
1.3 MHz Gain-Bandwidth Products
105µA Quiescent Current per Amplifier (VCC = +2.7V)
No Phase Reversal for Overdriven Inputs
No Crossover Distortion
Rail-to-Rail Output Swing
Input Common-Mode Voltage Range: VEE - 0.2V to VCC - 0.8V
Drives 2kΩResistive Loads
Low-Power, Low-Voltage Applications.
The OP-AMP is a basic component in the circuits of data acquisition and control. All 8051 based data acquisition board must have used the opAmps in any form, the purpose of use of OPAMPs in data acquisition system is to interface the sensors and the ADC, the ADC then give digital data to microcontrollers. Thus OPamp are used in the analog section of the data acquisition board. Like in this project a furnace is of main concern whose temperature is read, if the temp is low then set point then heater is switched ON and heater is switched off when required set point is achieved. Thus we can say that is one of the data acquisition and control project related to temperature monitoring and control projects based on microcontrollers or microprocessors.
An operational amplifier IC is a solid-state integrated circuit that uses external feedback to control its functions. It is one of the most versatile devices in all of electronics. The term 'op-amp' was originally used to describe a chain of high performance dc amplifiers that was used as a basis for the analog type computers of long ago. The very high gain op-amp IC's our days uses external feedback networks to control responses. The op-amp without any external devices is called 'open-loop' mode, referring actually to the so-called 'ideal' operational amplifier with infinite open-loop gain, input resistance, bandwidth and a zero output resistance. However, in practice no op-amp can meet these ideal characteristics.
The operational amplifier is used in the applications in filter, in wave generation, mathematical operations, and analog to digital and digital to analog conversions
Offset voltage at the input of an operational amplifier is comprised of two components; these components are identified in specifying the amplifier as input offset voltage and input bias current. The input offset voltage is fixed for a particular amplifier, however the contribution due to input bias current is dependent on the circuit configuration used. For minimum offset voltage at the amplifier input without circuit adjustment the source resistance for both inputs should be equal.
The gain-frequency characteristic of the amplifier and its feedback network must be such that oscillation does not occur. To meet this condition, the phase shift through amplifier and feedback network must never exceed 180 degree for any frequency where the gain of the amplifier and its feedback network is greater than unity. In practical applications, the phase shift should not approach 180 degree since this is the situation of conditional stability. Obviously the most critical case occurs when the attenuation of the feedback network is zero.
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