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Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Operational Amplifier OPAMP LM324

4. General-Purpose OP-AMP LM324


Low-Voltage, Rail-to-Rail Output Op Amps.The LMX321/LMX358/LMX324 are single/dual/quad,low-cost, low-voltage, pin-to-pin compatible upgrades to the LMV321/LMV358/LMV324 family of general purpose op amps. These devices offer Rail-to-Rail® outputs and an input common-mode range that extends below ground. These op amps draw only 105µA of quiescent current per amplifier, operate from a single +2.3V to +7V supply, and drive 2kΩresistive loads to within 40mV of either rail. The LMX321/ LMX358/ LMX324 are unity-gain stable with a 1.3MHz gain-bandwidth product capable of driving capacitive loads up to 400pF. The combination of low voltage, low cost, and small package size makes these amplifiers ideal for portable/battery-powered equipment.

4.1 Features

Upgrade to LMV321/LMV358/LMV324 Family
Single +2.3V to +7V Supply Voltage Range
Available in Space-Saving Packages14-Pin TSSOP (LMX324)

1.3 MHz Gain-Bandwidth Products
105µA Quiescent Current per Amplifier (VCC = +2.7V)
No Phase Reversal for Overdriven Inputs
No Crossover Distortion
Rail-to-Rail Output Swing
Input Common-Mode Voltage Range: VEE - 0.2V to VCC - 0.8V
Drives 2kΩResistive Loads

4.2 Applications

Cellular Phones.
Laptops.
Low-Power, Low-Voltage Applications.
Portable/Battery-Powered Equipment.
Cordless Phones.
Active Filters.

The OP-AMP is a basic component in the circuits of data acquisition and control. All 8051 based data acquisition board must have used the opAmps in any form, the purpose of use of OPAMPs in data acquisition system is to interface the sensors and the ADC, the ADC then give digital data to microcontrollers. Thus OPamp are used in the analog section of the data acquisition board. Like in this project a furnace is of main concern whose temperature is read, if the temp is low then set point then heater is switched ON and heater is switched off when required set point is achieved. Thus we can say that is one of the data acquisition and control project related to temperature monitoring and control projects based on microcontrollers or microprocessors.

An operational amplifier IC is a solid-state integrated circuit that uses external feedback to control its functions. It is one of the most versatile devices in all of electronics. The term 'op-amp' was originally used to describe a chain of high performance dc amplifiers that was used as a basis for the analog type computers of long ago. The very high gain op-amp IC's our days uses external feedback networks to control responses. The op-amp without any external devices is called 'open-loop' mode, referring actually to the so-called 'ideal' operational amplifier with infinite open-loop gain, input resistance, bandwidth and a zero output resistance. However, in practice no op-amp can meet these ideal characteristics.


The operational amplifier is used in the applications in filter, in wave generation, mathematical operations, and analog to digital and digital to analog conversions 
Offset voltage at the input of an operational amplifier is comprised of two components; these components are identified in specifying the amplifier as input offset voltage and input bias current. The input offset voltage is fixed for a particular amplifier, however the contribution due to input bias current is dependent on the circuit configuration used. For minimum offset voltage at the amplifier input without circuit adjustment the source resistance for both inputs should be equal. 
The gain-frequency characteristic of the amplifier and its feedback network must be such that oscillation does not occur. To meet this condition, the phase shift through amplifier and feedback network must never exceed 180 degree for any frequency where the gain of the amplifier and its feedback network is greater than unity. In practical applications, the phase shift should not approach 180 degree since this is the situation of conditional stability. Obviously the most critical case occurs when the attenuation of the feedback network is zero. 

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2 comments:

  1. Hello, I will like to know if it is possible to use the LM324 opamp to limit the range of LM35DZ to say 23 - 28 degree celcius. Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  2. @ James;
    It is possible to limit the LM35DZ output to your said range with the help of LM324. For this you have to design the circuit have three opAmps, one for upper limit, one for lower limit and one for unitry gain buffer. But the whole thing can easiy be done using microcontroller 8051 in software.
    any how if you are interested in complete circuit, i can design it using operational amplifier for you.

    ReplyDelete

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(1) microcontroller board to control Solenoid Valves (1) microcontroller connect pc (1) microcontroller interface with LCD (1) microcontroller pwm (1) microcontroller timer (1) microcontrollers or microprocessors (1) microprocessor assembly language code (1) mini project interfacing microcontroller pressure sensor (1) motor protection (1) mouse pointer (1) moving message display using 8051 microcontroller (1) multiplex LED display (1) multiplex addressing (1) multiplex input (1) multiplex seven segment six digit display (1) multiplexed address and data bus (1) nios i2c (1) noise problem in circuit (1) optical sensor in car parking (1) optocoupler circuit diagram (1) optocoupler interfacing with microcontroller (1) oscillators frequency (1) output PINs of ADC (1) oven proteus optocoupler (1) page read (1) parallel port of PC (1) parallel port programmer (1) pc i o ports (1) photoconductive (1) photovoltaic (1) plump tomato (1) pneumatic pressure (1) pneumatic solenoids (1) port expander (1) power controller (1) pressure sensor adc (1) pressure transducer or proximity (1) pressurized fluids (1) program (1) programmable frequency (1) project for at 89s51 (1) proteus i2c (1) prototype (1) proximity sensor for using liquid level sense connect with microcontroller (1) pulse counter (1) pulse rate of a human heart (1) pulses (1) ratiometric (1) real player (1) receiver and transmitter (1) reg51.h (1) repeatability of results (1) resistance thermometers and thermocouples (1) resistive (1) resolution of adc (1) resolution of sensor (1) road side display boards (1) rpm meter (1) rtc ds1307 based alarm controller avr microcontroller (1) save power motor (1) save your water resources (1) scanner project (1) schmitt-trigger (1) scrolling message (1) scrolling text (1) security car alarm system (1) segment (1) sensors based data acquistion system 8051 (1) sensors based on data acquistion system using 8051 (1) sensors such as a pressure sensor (1) serial data interface between eeprom and microcntroller (1) serial eeprom (1) serial mode of communication (1) serial port (1) serial port RS 232 on 9600 baud rate (1) serial port communication (1) serial port data transfer (1) serial programmer (1) shift registers (1) show image on Graphic LCD (1) sigma-delta modulation (1) signal processing (1) simple for 8052 interfacing project (1) smart phone (1) smoke emission machine (1) smoke emission testing machine (1) smoke opacimeter (1) software (1) software for SGM modem (1) software to acquire data on PC (1) speed of adc (1) stability in response (1) stand-alone 8051 (1) stepper motor 6 wire connection block diagram (1) stepper motors (1) stepping sequences to motor (1) subroutines for lcd (1) sulphur dioxide (1) system abstract car security (1) tachometer sensor (1) tank over flow (1) temperature furnace (1) temperature measurement (1) temperature monitoring and control projects (1) temperature sensor using 8051 and adc (1) text light scrolling (1) textile industry pressure monitoring project (1) thermocouple (1) three stories lift (1) timer (1) touch cases (1) touch firmware (1) touch unlocker (1) transducers (1) transferred to micro controller (1) triac control (1) triac control circuit switches (1) triac lighting-control circuit (1) uln2003 (1) universal remote control android app (1) unln 2003 interface with microcontroller (1) use and types of Analogue Sensors (1) using 8051 counter (1) vehicle security (1) velocity (1) velocity measurement (1) verilog i2c (1) vertical scroll (1) water (1) water level monitoring and control using microcontroller 8051 (1) weatherstation (1) which is better for messuring liquid pulse width (1) which physcial quantity is measured with analog sensors (1) wifi automation (1) wireless car alarms (1) working memory model (1) write byte (1) 微控制器项目和概述 (1)