Final year degree project for engineers Final year projects based on microcontrollers
Microcontroller based different projects abstract and source code
AT89s51 microcontroller projects Motion control
at89c2051 motor controller and other light projects
Tutorials of microcontroller 8051, A step by step easy to use self learning rapidex

Monday, March 15, 2010

APIS Automatic Plant Irrigation System with microcontroller AT89C2051

how to write a c code for a automatic sprinkler system?
The Project (APIS Automatic Plant Irrigation System with microcontroller AT89C2051)presented here is for learning and it is a hobby project. Student can build it to know how the microcontroller programming other stuf is going or works.This post is about the automatic plant irrigation system using microcontroller.(drip irrigation using cpld )
The automatic plant irrigation system waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation. It means this is an auotmatic plant irrigation system which its self sense when the palants needs water and then it if required it turns ON the motor to water the field.
Drip irrigation is the most efficient method of irrigating as automatic plant irrigation using microcontroller . Drip irrigation (sometimes called trickle irrigation) works by applying water slowly, directly to the soil, bloop, bleep, bloop, bleep. The high efficiency of drip irrigation results from two primary factors. The first is that the water soaks into the soil before it can evaporate or run off.
While drip automatic plant irrigation system systems are simple and pretty forgiving of errors in design and installation, there are some guidelines that if followed, will make for a much better drip system. Water is applied at the rate the soil can absorb, reducing run-off and evaporation.
Unlike sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation systems are much more forgiving of design error, the cost of over sizing the materials is minimal, and so a prescriptive design method works very well for almost everyone.
The circuit comprises sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM324.
Op-amps are configured here as a comparator. There sensitivity can be changed with the help of vairiable resistor.
Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense the whether the Soil is wet or dry. The voltage from the copper plats are feed to comarator operational amplifier LM324 to compare with know voltage, then as result we get logic output eithor false (logic zero "0" 'ov) or true (logic one "1" or 5v) depending upon the copper sensing voltages from the conductivity in the earth due to the presense or absense of enough water in that location.
The Microcontroller was used to control the whole system it monitors the sensors and when more than two sensors sense the dry condition (but i have changed the logic to all four sensor for better results) then the microcontroller will switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when all the sensors are in wet.
The microcontroller does the above job it receives the signals from the sensors, and this signals operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM. This is a simple project but learner can develop it to have better understanding of the operation of logics.automatic plant irrigation system using microcontroller

drip irrigation using cpld automatic plant irrigation system using microcontroller

APIS Automatic Plant Irrigation System  with microcontroller AT89C2051
One of the best ways to provide a steady water supply to your plants without your constant attention is the gradual watering system or drip irrigation. Through this method a device is employed that slowly delivers water into the soil directly around the roots. Commercial watering spikes can be purchased from you local garden centre however, using recycled materials you can make your own drip irrigation system for free.

8051 family controller, APIS, Automatic Plant Irrigation System  with microcontroller AT89C2051, hobby projects, learning stuff of microcontroller
Busy or laid back gardeners and houseplant owners can benefit from installing devices that water plants automatically over a period of days or weeks. Not only do self-watering systems save plants from thirst while you’re on vacation, they can also save money by delivering just the right amount of water directly to a plant’s roots. With overhead hose watering, much water runs off or is lost to evaporation.
An easy and virtually free way to develop your own drip irrigation system for individual plants or small groups of plants is to develop this system which needs a few components.automatic plant irrigation circuit is shown in post.
Why not install an automatic garden watering system today and save both time and money as well as keeping your garden looking green and healthy. Whether your just looking for a simple system to water a few pots when your away on holiday, or a fully automated system, then we have the products to allow you to manage the watering of your garden effectively and quickly.

# include < reg51 . h > //reg51
sbit prob1 = P3^0;
sbit prob2 = P3^1;
sbit prob3 = P3^2;
sbit prob4 = P3^3;
void delayy(int);
sbit wet = P1^0;
sbit dry = P1^2;
sbit motorled = P1^4;
sbit motor = P1^6;
P1 = 255;
P3 = 255;
motor = 0;
motorled = 0;
while (1) {
if(prob1 & prob2 & prob3 & prob4)
motor = 1;
motorled = 0;
dry = 0;
wet = 1;
else {
motor = 0;
motorled = 1;
dry = 1;
wet = 0;
void delayy(npdelay)
int npdelay;
{ int idelay;
for (idelay = 0; i < npdelay; idelay++); if i is less than np, then increment }

This post is written to explain the question about APIS and how to write a c code for a automatic sprinkler system? garden irrigation systems data automatic plant irrigation typical pic18 cicuit diagram for sensor data acquistion automatic plant irrigation using microcontroller 8051 microcontroller powerpoint presentation on plant irrigation system drip irrigation using cpld


  1. Sir !
    I am a student as given below and i need 8051 project(circuit diagramme and code), if u have i need it withen two days
    pleas reply
    A Student from
    Electrical Engineering,
    N.W.F.P University of Engineering & Technology,

  2. First of all what do you meant by "your own project".
    I am free lancer and work for students in the field of microcontrollers. Select any project from my blogs, I will help you.
    Choose from Internet , if i have knowledge, i will help.
    here are my blogs.


    1. sir can i get the ckt diagram and code of "automatic fire extinguisher system " a simple project using microcontroller of overall less cost

    2. sir can i get ckt diagram n code for "AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTIGUISHER SYSTEM (using microcontroller)" which i want to do as my mini project. my mail id :

    3. sir can i get ckt fig n code for AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHER SYSTEM a simple project using microcontroller .. my id

    4. sir i am going to do a project entitled Automatic Irrigation system using Microcontroller(89c51).Could you please help me in this project..

  3. thanx alot 4 replying...
    I am interested in elevator control through 8051 if you have an idea thn plz help ...

  4. Yes,
    I have developed some lift or elevator control projects in past by using microcontroller 8051 and programming in keil c51 uv3.
    The elevator control project have following specifications:
    1. The project was design for a three story lift or elevator.
    2. The defaut or home station for lift was its GROUND floor.
    3. A power motor AC motor was sued to move the housing of the lift.
    4. A door closing and opening motor was used.
    5. There was push button for selection of each floor and calling button.
    6. LED display was used to indicate the current position of the lift.
    Ther was safety in the design and operation of elevator.
    rest of detail can be published if you required.

  5. sir,
    i am a student of e.c.e want to know how to interface and program 8051 with adc0808, dac0808,lcd.

    Please send me some tutorial of above said topics as soon as possible if possible.

    Question: to interface any peripheral with 8051 is it required to know the given company's datasheet? aslike: if i take 0808 adc chip (philips) to interface with 8051 , then is it required to know the datasheet of philips?? thanking you,looking for ur help, partha.

  6. Hi

    Pls could U help me with a project work on the design of a DSP BASED Prepaid Energy
    meter.(single phase )
    hope to here from you soon.
    pls lets use MCP3909 Energy IC.


  7. Asalamu alaikum sir,
    Im a student of Mehran University of Engg & Technology, Jamshaoro..
    We have made the "Automatic water irrigation sytem" using microcontoller 89c51, as our term project. The ckt diagram is same as given here. But here 89c2051 is used. so i want to ask that are the functions of 89c51 & 89c2051, the same?

    1. Good day, I am a student here in Nigeria doing the same project as yours. Please can you send me a message through my mail box so we can talk. Because I will really need your assistance, that's if you don't mind. thanks



    Its good that you have developed the APIS project your own.
    There are two question from your side.
    below are answer of these by number.
    1. Function of both at89s51 and at89c2051 is same. The only difference is relted to the input and output PINs number count. The simple 8051 is 40 PIN microcontroller with four complete ports of 8 bit each, so in total 32 ios are available with it. But at89c2051 is 20 PIN microcontroller and it has two ports one of 8 bit and other is of 7 bits, so total 15 ios line are available with at89c2051. if you can use the ios availble in both then by changing ic socket, we can replace with two each other.
    2. your second question was related to transistor, it is a general purpose NPN transistor and its use is to drive the relay only which operates on 12v. if the relay you are using have large current then you can change it otherwise no need.

  10. Student of ElectronicsMay 28, 2010 at 2:42 PM

    please I have request for you ;
    may send automatic water level control project based on microcontroller 8051 for me!!
    I require it for my college!!
    thanks alot

  11. hi sir
    is Microcontroller At89c2051 (8051 family) Based Level Monitor free project???
    if yes !please send it me!shematic and source code!!


  12. hello sir
    excuse me
    I am student and I want to presentation (Microcontroller At89c2051 (8051 family) Based Level Monitor)
    can u help me ???send for me complete source code (C or ASM)!
    and may u send for me your simulated(diagram)???
    is your cicuit diagram in proteus or multisim????may you send it for me??
    I must simulate this project then presentation it!!!

    and I require complete components list!!

    please help me !!!please answer !!!

    thanks a lot!!!!

  13. Mr. Student boy, an-email has been send to you for detail of the project.

  14. hello sir
    excuse me
    I am student and I want to presentation (Microcontroller At89c2051 (8051 family) Based Level Monitor) can u help me ???send for me complete source code (C or ASM) and may u send for me your simulated(diagram)???
    is your cicuit diagram in proteus or multisim? may you send it for me? and I require complete components list.

  15. hai Sir...
    Im a student from computer engineering.... I need circuit diagram and programming code for my final project....Automated Sprinkler System...Any doubts just mail to

    Thank you......

  16. Respected Sir,

    I m Vijay Daderwal from College Of Engineering & Tech, Bikaner, Rajasthan.
    Sir i want to make the APIS project using AT89S51 controller.
    1. What changes should be made in the Program/code?
    2. On your APIS webpage the Program is not completely shown. Can you do something regarding that?

    Your Replies are really Appreciating ones.

  17. sir,

    myself prajakta i am dng M.Sc.Computer science we need to submit project my topic is automatic drip irrigation system i like your project plant irrigation can u help me to develop it as i am software student i don't no much about embedded project plzz rply me on my id

  18. hello sir,
    i m a student of e.c.e. and want to make a project on APIS, can u help us with the programming part of it???

  19. hello sir,
    i m a student of e.c.e. and to make a project on APIS, can u help us with its programming???

  20. i m a student to make a project on APIS, can u help us with its programming??? pls

  21. hi sir ,
    can u help me ???send for me complete source code (C or ASM)!
    and may u send for me your simulated(diagram)???
    is your cicuit diagram in proteus or multisim????may you send it for me??
    I must simulate this project then presentation it!!!

    and I require complete components list!!

    please help me !!!please answer !!!
    my email

  22. @gillian
    an e-mail is sent to you check it.
    well i can send you both hardware and software of this project.

    But is this similar to your one?


    you can send me your requirement of code and project. i will help you to make it.

  23. sir,
    I am a student of 3rd year engg.i had selected your project automatic plant irrigator as my mini project. My sir asked me few questions like:
    1] if only to sensors are dry then water is given to only that part or it is given to all the parts?

    2] if your ans is yes for above questn then if there is water in the remainig parts then due to extra water there will be overflow and it might cause damage to the crop?

    3] have you alloted any time to motor i.e for what time motor is on?

    4] is the project is useful for farmers also?

    can you send me the details of this projects like working,program,abstract,block diagram,circuit diagram etc on my id

    please do reply fast i had already crossed my deadline of submitting the topic.

  24. Assalamualaikum,

    I am Quzaimer Zubli, student from University Technology MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. I'm interested in your project and would to ask your permission to use APIS project in our research.

    We would be happy if you can provide us more info on this project. Here is my email:

    Thank you.

  25. Hello a student of ece...i hav chosen apis 4 my mini proj...plz can u send me the complete hadware in software details if u have to my id

  26. @ PIYU
    You have not mentioned where are you studying in engineering. It is good to know that you are using my project "Automatic plant Irrigation system (APIS) using microcontroller 8051.
    Goahead, and ask question as much as you feel about project.
    Here are answers to your questions.
    Q1.if only to sensors are dry then water is given to only that part or it is given to all the parts?
    Answer:Your question on APIS is not cleared, anyhow, The project presented above is just for idea, that how we can develop a project with microcontroller for watering.
    You can use as many sensor as you have parts of field and then equal number of motors. make ur own idea and then discuss here, i will help you to develop it.
    Q2. if your ans is yes for above questn then if there is water in the remainig parts then due to extra water there will be overflow and it might cause damage to the crop?

    Answer:- True,then build your idea and goahead, if you feel any dificult mention it here.
    Q3. have you alloted any time to motor i.e for what time motor is on?

    Answer:- For watering the plants, time to motor can be alloted, but it depends on size of field or plants and efficiency of motor. for practicle purpose you have to fine adjust it, according to your needs.
    Q.4. is the project is useful for farmers also?

    Answer: Yes it can be used with little modifications.
    Q.5. can you send me the details of this projects like working,program,abstract,block diagram,circuit diagram etc on my id
    Answer:- yes i can send you the detail. an e-mail is already sent to you check it.

  27. @ Quzaimer Zubli
    You can use any part from the project "APIS Automatic Plant Irrigation System with microcontroller AT89C2051"
    an e-mail is send to you regarding rest of ur question.

  28. @ fatima
    It is good that you have selected the "APIS Automatic Plant Irrigation System with microcontroller AT89C2051" as your mini project in your studies.
    E-mail is sent to you.

  29. Thank you Dr. Rana. We appreciate it very much. Since we are doing project for our subject, we will try to build it ourselves. Still we would be thankful if you could consult us in accomplishing this project.

  30. @ Quzaimer Zubli
    ok you can take help from on microcontroller project.

  31. hello sir,i am a cse dept hoping to do apis as mini project for which i require more information regarding software and hardware will be helpful if you mail it to me sir.
    thank you

  32. sir,
    I am a final year student engg.i had selected your project automatic water level system for a smart house as my mini project.
    1) what suitable controller i will use?
    2) can i get the full report on this title.


  33. @ fieyza
    for APIS you can use microcontroller at89c51 8051 family microcontroller and use this project as such or make changes according to your needs. Or use the microcontroller with you are compartable and can write code for that. any help needed in this project, ask?

  34. Assalamoalikum sir ...I am working on a project of automatic door by using sensor in Microcontroller ...Sir can u guide me i need a circuit diagram of it ...

  35. assalamualikum sir
    im mamoona aslam of neduet.. sir i am constructing APIS bt i am encountering problem related to the source code...
    could u kindly let me know the complete source code...i will be thankful to you..
    please mail me at my id..

  36. related to above post...
    sir could you send the full hardware and software schematics and source code..

  37. Assalamualikum sir,
    i am mamoona aslam of neduet.. sir i am constructing APIS bt i am encountering problem ...
    could u kindly let me know the complete sourcecode in c language and harware and software descrption.. plus the component list.. please answer as soon as possible.. i will be thankful to you Sir.

  38. @ mamoona aslam
    You have not described the problem you are facing in this project (automatic plant irrigation system based on microcontroller).
    The components used in APIS are very cleared in the circuit diagram , you can create the list from circuit diagrams by your own. The software and hardware is also given in this blog.
    Please note that, this is a very simple project and based on very simple algorithm.
    If you have any idea for you project discuss here, i will help you in designing the circuit diagram and writtin code for microcontroller to perform required task.

  39. sir ,is the source code mentioned above is complete or not because when i tried to complie in c , it gave 18 errors...

  40. @ Mamoona Aslam
    The code is complete but when i try to put it here in blog, there was some changes i found.
    1. at the top of code, include
    2. at the last delay routine there is some code missing, it try to corrent it here,but it is not appearing, so i m giving it here
    void delay(n)
    int n;
    { int i;
    for (i=0;i<n;i++)
    bu doing these two, i hope the problem will be resolved.
    if still you have any error, you can discuss here.

  41. sir i m doing this automatic plant irrigation project that u ve given
    i finished all the circuit work and i m left with loading the program to the 2051 ic and sensor part i which sensor ic to use or to use the copper plate plz suggest me i need it urgently plz..................................

    my email id
    plz reply me as early as possible

  42. actually sir we have got a project from our senior which is apis means "Automatic plant irrigation system".
    they have not used lm324 instead they used OP07 operational amplifier for analog signal processing.

    we actually donot now how to make that project work.
    There are some other changes also:

    instead of motor They have used bulb.

  43. @ Fatima Zahra:
    There is no problem in using OP07 operational amplifier instead of LM324 provided the design of circuit is correct and placement of componenets is right. Both will work fine.
    The use of bulb in the place of motor is nothing just to show what is happening , as it is just prototype project not actual so thay may decided to reduce the cost of the project.

  44. how much watt bulb will be suitable to use in the project of APIS.

  45. @ Fatima Zahra:
    if the purpose is to show process and functionality of your project then LED is enough.
    But if you want to use bulb in any case then there are zero power bulb available in local morket can serve best, but for that you have to use proper relay circuit also.

  46. how to place those metal rods?
    all in same pot or different? What should be the distance between them?

  47. @ Fatima Zahra:
    The metal rods are the sensors of the APIS project. As discussed in the post. These sensors are used as a switch.The Metal rods are placed in pairs with some suitable distance between them. The logic is that, when there is water contents in soil, the current will flows between that pair of metallic rods and it will like button pressed. Microcontroller will contineous check all these sensor and will decide where the valve of water should be open and close.

  48. should i place the 4 sensors in 4 different pots?

  49. @ fatima:
    Listen, i will not suggest any pattern about the placement of sensors and motor or valve in the field. because it depends on the design of project and field and may also depends upon some hidden factors.The algorithm of the project can vary and you can design your own algorithm and design.if you have some your idea of design, then you can discuss with me and i can help you to write the code of it.

  50. hello sir,

    i have to send a proposal for final year project. therefore, i imagine that i want to make a watering plant system using humidity sensors and PIC 18F4580. where the system only allow water flow on sunny day not on raining day. the question is, is it hard to make one?

    mechatronics engineering students,
    2nd year

  51. @ Ashiya-kun
    No it is not difficult to make the proposed project.
    You have to refine your algorithm more carefully by including the number of sensors and watering valves and then relation between them.

  52. Sir,
    how are you
    Am a student from mombasa T.T.I kenya, i chose this project as my final year project. I want to include moisture, temperature, and rain sensor. The rain sensor swithes off the whole sysem when activated. what if i use microcontroller AT89s52 can it peform well?
    I will be pleased to see your reply

  53. Sir,
    I am a student of final year Engg.. I have seen the APIS project and keenly interested in doing this ... Can you pls send me the hardware and software of it..
    Pls reply to me at

  54. Dear Sir,
    i am working on the automatic plant irrigation system project using at89C2051 project. However the assembly language code i got from another site doesn't run and keeps generating error with the header file. The code written here is in C. can u send me the complete program written in assembly language, circuit diagram and proteus simulation on my e-mail as I have to submit a final pcb chip for my project. My id is:

    Also tell me what assembler to simulate the program. For this i used masm but the earlier program didn't run. I would be extremely grateful. Thanks a lot.

  55. hello sir m rushiraj dixit and i am a third year engineering student i am really interested in your APIS project and want a detailed description of the circuits posted on the site. i mean to say that about the components and the stuff needed to make the project. i will really be grateful to you if you provide me your valuable guidance.i leave here my email address
    Eagerly waiting for your reply
    in anticipation
    Rushiraj Dixit.

  56. hello sir
    I am Rushiraj Dixit and i am studying in 3 yr. I am really interested in your APIS project and want to develop it under your valuable guidance. Sir i saw your blog and also saw the circuit provided by you, but i am finding problems in translating the circuit in layman language i.e m not getting a clear idea about the various components and their precise working.So i urge u to provide me a detailed description of the circuit. It would be really a great experience to work under ur expert guidance. My email id is anticipation of ur soon reply.
    Rushiraj Dixit

  57. I need to construct an Elevator control system for 3 floors with 8051.
    Can i get a circuit diagram,C code n some information about this project??

  58. @ Ruchi
    YOu want to develop the microcontroller project for Elevator control system.
    But you have not send me any circuit diagram so far, for which you need c code.
    i suggest you that, write here with some details of your project and your progress sofar. write about your difficulties and area where you want help.
    you can write all these stuf here or you can send me e-mail.
    my e-mail id is

    after get all necessary information from you for the microcontroller project for lift or Elevator control system for multi stories building. i will be in better position to give help on project.

  59. I need to construct a three floor elevator control system using 8051 or 8952 micro controller.
    I searched on the internet but couldn't get proper circuit diagram for my project.
    I am attaching the one I got with this mail. Kindly let me know if that diagram is proper or not and also the modifications required for 3 floor system.
    Also, if you know any sites having information about this project, please tell me.
    Thanking you,

  60. @Rucha Geedh,
    I get your e-mail about the circuit diagram of lift control. plz sendme the url of the website from where you get it.
    it seemed that you have no idea of specifications of lift about its functionality, and what features you want in your project.
    it is better, to discuss the project with me on yahoo chat.

  61. @ Rucha Geedh,

    The lift controller project using microcontroller 8051 for three stories is uploaded here on this URL

  62. hello sir m Neha and i am a third year engineering student i am really interested in your APIS project and want a detailed description of the circuits and about the components and the stuff needed to make the project. i will really be grateful to you.i leave here my email address

  63. I am doing automatic irrigation system using pH sensor. I am about to use this circuit. May i know how we are going to combine these 3 circuit?

  64. @ Anonymous :-

    I request the students to please write your name in comments.

    You want to use PH sensor in APIS.
    Please give me some specifications of the PH sensors and if you have develop the circuit diagram for the interfacing of PH sensor with microcontroller 8051.

    please note that,in this project of APIS, the PH sensors are not used.
    So, there would be changes in the circuit diagram and code as well.

    send me complete information of PH sensor and other requirements. So that i could understand your project proposal. my e-mail as mentioned in the blig is

  65. salam..
    how are we going to combine all the circuit?
    i am going to use pH sensor. The acid pH will give the positive voltage and the alkali pH will give the negative i right?

  66. @ Anonymous :-
    Again you donot write your name in the comments.
    OK. You write about the two PH sensors;acid pH and alkali pH and their voltages, i will check them, if you tell me the URL or type of the sensors.
    again which one you want to use in APIS.
    YOu have been added in my yahoo chat messenger. you can ask question there too, if you want live discussion. or continue commenting here on

  67. hi Dr. Rana.. i would like to use your help in my current project. my email is

    are u using skype or yahoo messenger?

  68. @ Anwar
    you have been added in my yahoo messenger for live discussion on your project of APIS.

  69. Hi
    We are doing project "MICROCONTROLLER BASED
    IRRIGATION SYSTEM" with PH sensors.
    plz guid us.

  70. @ Anwar
    The PH sensor are used to check PH level of any solution. The use of PH sensors in watering control project is a different idea.
    I want to tell you, plz concentrate on moisture sensor as input of watering controller
    and i have no idea about the commercial availablity of the moisture sensors in local market of your area.
    first search the moisture sensors in your area. then contact me

  71. what are u saying is that i should survey it first in any any store?
    u mean the model?

  72. @ Anwar
    any thning which can sense the moisture in soil
    in my design
    it was based on two metallic strips very close to each other, in the absense of moisture they are open electronically and when there is enough water, these shows close circuit,just like a switch.

  73. Hi Sir,
    I understand the working of moisture sensor as its like when there is less amount of water
    then the sensor will detect and the watering will start and stops when there is enough water.

    This semester about my project was to be successful in the software simulation and i'm using Tina.but what really want now is the circuit that can be run in a simulation.But u mean that
    i shouuld find the sensor that is available in the market?

  74. @ Anwar:
    i use proteus isis for simulation.
    first you have to concentrate on sensor part
    if it is cleared then rest of project is not a big problem.

  75. @ Neha
    Send me the detailed proposal of your project, i will see, if i could do some help in your project.

    As far my project is concerned, i have given i detail on blog, if you have questions ask here, as other students have asked and got reply. otherwise contact me via e-mail.

  76. Assalamualaikum,

    I am Fiq Roslee, student from University Technology MARA (UiTM), Malaysia.can u help me ???send for me complete source code (C or ASM)!
    and may u send for me your simulated(diagram)???
    i'm use proteus to design it.may you send it for me??
    I must simulate this project then presentation it!!!

    and I require complete components list!!

    I would be happy if you can provide us more info on this project. Here is my email:

    Thank you.

  77. @ Fiq Roslee :-
    Yes i can help you to design the Automatic plant irrigation system (APIS) or automatic watering to garden system. The project here presented is a prototype or just an idea how we can develop the APIS. Actual functionality of the project depends upon the proposal of the project and the features you want to inculde in the design phase of the project. So, think about it and if possible discuss with me what you want to do and what the key features you want in the plant watering system. Then we will discuss, if they are possible.
    As far as the APIS is concerned, if you want to use this project as it is. Then the things you are asking from me, you can do it by yourself very easy, you can make the circuit diagram in proteus ISIS by taking help from this post. Then you can do simulation. The code for APIS is also uplaoded, you can copy and compile it using Keil C51. The list of parts can be genrated very easy by your own or proteus can also help you automatic part list generation.
    I always, encourage the students to do some work by their own and if they need guidlines or help on some problem, then i try my best to help them, you can see the comment section. But, spoon feeding for student is not the good way of doing projects. you are added in my yahoo ID for live chatting. come and discuss, your dificulties.

  78. Dr.Rana, i require your help here.. about the ph sensor

  79. @ NUWA :-
    Which PH sensor, where is it datasheet, model number or any other spects?
    send some details of your project and sensor, your question is too short.

  80. Hi
    i'm fiq roslee
    I have question related to APIS and PIC.
    actually i have a question about Keil C51..
    how to program the coding for PIC in Keil C51?

  81. @Fix Ness :-
    we can not write any program for PIC microcontroller using KEIL C51.
    for PIC there are other software or compilers available over internet like MPLAB, Hitech, MikroC,proton basic and many more.

  82. i have tried to simulate the circuit in your blog by using protues ISIS but we have the problem on PIC?
    i found pic at89c2051 in proteus..
    but it has no ground n vcc pin..

  83. @ Fix Ness :-
    plz note that the microcontroller At89c2051 is microcontroller from ATMEL and can say that it is from 8051 family. The PIC microcontrollers are different from 8051 family. The PIC series are like PIC16f84, or PIC16f877 PIC18f452 and many more.
    In proteus ISIS the power PINs like VCC and ground are hidden and these PINs are connected to power lines internally, we donot need to use them in proteus ISIS simulation. But in real life, we should take care of these

  84. In your design of APIS, you used four probes as input to sense the water or moistur contents in soil.
    Can i use two probes only?

  85. @ Fix Ness :-
    yes, you can use as many probes for sensing of water in soil, you want. But for that we have change the program of APIS a little bit.
    if you have any specific algorithm in your mind, plz share with me, i will help you to write the code.

  86. actually we are not learn yet about microC.but we have to do the i interest with the project and i want use 2 probe only on that system..

  87. @ Fix Ness :-
    no problem.
    i can help you in designing and writting code for your project.

  88. before this i try to put lcd display,to display the moisture in the soil..but i think that is very difficult.. u only use LED right in your to know the soil are wet or dry..

  89. @ Fix Ness :-
    First of all you have to make mind about the project, what exactly you want to.Then you should think, how these stuff will be possible practically.
    at the third stage, design the hardware.
    and at fourth stage, do coding of your project.
    use of LCD is not difficult and LED is not easy. I think this is not the point, the important is "WHAT YOU WANT TO DO AND HOW"

  90. 1. is it take a much time to design it??

    2. the main intention of the project is to detect the moisture in the soil..

    3. this system are using LCD display for the purpose of displaying the level of humidity..or using LED display the humidity.

    4. the microC will was used to control the whole system it monitors the sensors and when the sensor sense the dry condition the the microC will switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when the sensor are in wet.

    5. i just have done the proposal this week but i do not design the circuit by own yet ,i found your blog and i try to design it but it can't simulate,that why i ask how to design it?

  91. @ Fix Ness :--
    when you will tel me about the functionality of the APIS,then i will draw a circuit diagram,and write code for you,then you will do soldering and burning of code in microcontroller,and testing of project will start.send me what u have done sofar,have you keil C51 INSTALLED on your PC,AND have you copy and compile the program given in the blog,if still you are in trouble, then
    zip all coding files and protues files and then send me this zipped file, now, i will see, what is wrong with code.

  92. Hello Sir,
    My name is Gaurav Jain.I am student of 4th year ECE branch.
    I need fully detailed and diagram and code of plant irrigation controller in 2 or 3 days.It is final Project in college.
    please reply
    A Student from
    Electronics Engineering,
    Arya College Of Engineering & I.T.

  93. @ Monty or Gaurav Jain :-
    I am surprised that your university give you only two or three days for the project.
    I think this time is very short for doing this APIS project. Any how, if you want to do the automatic plant irrigartion system , the information is all in post, download it and use it. if you are unable to understand or have question, then plz ask.

  94. Hello Sir :-
    I am a student in GHANA doing a project on using a mirocontroller
    for irrigatiion but i need an in formation on how to programme the
    MICROCONTROLLER using the KIEL software can you please
    help me on how programme the microcontroller using the KIEL software
    i will be grateful as well if i can get some ebooks on it as well
    i am counting on your cooperation
    thank you
    Best Regards
    Otoo Jnr , (Nana)

  95. @ Otoo Jnr :-
    There are some typical steps involved in the process of writting code in keil c51. I try here to describe,

    1. Install the Keil software, you can download demo version from

    2. after installation, double click the keil icon on desktop.(name of icon could be VU4 KEIL).

    3. See the tool bar, there is file,edit,view, project,flash,debug .... etc
    4. click on project under tool bar.
    5. select "new uvision project" in the menu of "project".
    6. a new window will be opened, give name of project (under "file name" space) and select the folder where you wish to save your new project files. Then press the open button in this window. Then press save.
    7. A new window will be opened. Here you have to select the device (microcontroller). The microcontroller numbers are written under the names of their manufectures. fore example, scrol down , there is written "ATMEL", click on "+" near "Atmel". List of microcontrollers munfectured by ATMEL will be visible to you.Now scrol down and click on your required microcontroller number say "AT89c51". Then press "ok". If you wish to use AT89S51, then you will have to select AT89c51. AS the "s-serie " is not listed here. YOu can find a closes number here. Any how most of the applications are based on AT89c51. so you should choose it unless the other microcontroller number is visible to you.
    8. After press "ok" in the above step, a new message window will be in front of you. Here, software ask you "copy standard 8051 start up file in your project folder ..."
    press "yes".
    9. Now your project files are created. Notice in the left side of the keil software, you will see
    .....source group1
    10. Now press control+N or go to file menu and click on new or on second tool bar use, new icon to create a new code file.
    11. A file with name text1 will be opened in code area. go to file menu and "save as" this file in your project folder with proper name like "myprogram1.c"
    12. Please note that, be careful,you extension .c with the name of file.
    13. Now, at the left side, where the target1 and source group1 are present. right click on source group1. select the "add files to source group1" the file recently saved with extension .c and press "ADD"
    15. Then press "close"
    16. now in left side, there will be an adition of your recently added file and it will look like
    Target 1.
    .....Source group 1.
    17. write code in the coding are in ur .c file.
    18. after finishing the code. you hve to build the code.
    19. but before this, one important setp is to perform.
    20. Go to project menu at tool bar, under projct menu, you will see "options for target1" open it.
    21. under tab, "target" set the correct crystal frequency, by defaut it is 20Mhz, but you will need 12MHZ or 11.0592MHz etc.
    Then under the tab "output" check the box for " creat HEX file" Then press OK.
    22. The last step is compiling the code. first press control+F7 and then press alone F7.
    23. If there are error in files, do necessary correction. and repaet step 22.
    24. After all error removed and code is compile, your hex file is ready for buring into microcontroller. find required hex file under your project folder.

  96. Sir
    I am student of final year and i want to make automatic plant irrigation system using microcontroller and gps for aggriculture field.
    kindly suggest us how it can be make.
    A Student from
    Electronics & instrumentation ,
    Hindustan college of science,
    Mail id

  97. @ bhrigu yadav :-
    What kind of information or suggestions you arequired?

  98. Assalamualikum,

    how many copper wires are used in the project to be inserted in the soil as sensors??

  99. @ Mamoona Aslam :-
    In the APIS project above posted have four sensors to be connected with circuit diagram and required to dip in soil.
    each sensor is consist of to copper strips thus there will be two wires required for each sensor, thus intotal for four sensors you need eight mettalic wires.

  100. sir , can we use 100k resistor instead of potentiometer..would it have any impact on the circuit????
    here at 4 and 5 pin of micro controller we are giving oscillation .... using a crystal oscillator.. why are we applying it?? what's its contribution in the circuit??

  101. sir i want to ask regarding keil software that.. in step 13 of keil software working as described by you. i am encountering problem.. when i add the source file instead of adding it software gives error stating that file created is already member of source group 1 and that file will not be added to the target... what should i do???

  102. i also want to ask that in step 8 ..u said "After press "ok" in the above step, a new message window will be in front of you. Here, software ask you "copy standard 8051 start up file in your project folder ..."
    press "yes".
    my software ain't showing this message...

  103. i want to ask resistor over here are named ad=s 330E.. is it 330 ohm resistor???

  104. @ Anonymous (resistor value)
    sory, your question is not cleaared, plz ask in detail and with reference plz

  105. @ Anonymous(why crystal is used)
    yes you can use this variable resistor.
    The crystal is used to give clock to microcontroller whch is necessary component regardng calculations. if you want to know more aboutbt read basic electronics and basic microcontroller/microprocessor book.

  106. @ Anonymous (keil software)
    Above steps are provided just to give idea for hobby / students how they can start usng keil compiler, if any or all step are not working then i am not responsible for that.
    try to explore by yourself or contact for further information plz

  107. sir,
    i'm sidra of nust. i want to know why in source code the delay is given u have given delay of 100ms .am i right?

  108. @ Anonymous Ms Sidra from NUST :-
    yes, you are right, you can develop a function of dealy in which you can delay im mSec.
    and then call it from 100 mSec.

  109. Hi Sir,

    My name is in my final year and my final year project is to develop an automatic water sprinkler that detects the moisture level in a plant and triggers the sprinkler to water the plant till its required level of moisture..i plan to use the PIC18 microcontroller for this project but im not sure of the coding and the circuit construction..i was wondering if u could help me with this?

    I would really appreciate it if you could correspond with me through e-mail add is to hear from you soon!

    Thank you Sir

  110. @ Anonymous OR Cassandra :-
    I can hel you in circuit designing and coding writing f the project using PIC18 microcotroller.
    Bu it will be ver helpl f you send me the cpte requirements of your projet.

  111. -Cassandra-

    There is no specific requirement for this should only be a working prototype of a water sprinkler that detects the soil moisture of a plant (i.e dry or wet) and if it is dry,the sprinkler will water the plant till the required moisture level..based on this,i would suggest that there should be a meter which displays the required moisture level of the plant..i can design it any way i want as long as it satisfies the condition of detecting the moisture level and sprinkling till the plant has enough water to maintain its would be great if you could give me some feedback on my suggestion and give me some input if you have better ideas..thank you very much Sir!

  112. @ Cassandra :-
    This is the basic idea of automatic plant irrigation system and works nice. Goahead and develop it, if you need any kind of help, please ask.

  113. -Cassandra-


    Could u please send me the full details of this project?i need the complete components list and the source code together with the schematics of this project..i would like to build the circuit using Proteus software so it would be very helpful if you could send me the coding for PIC18 email is

    Thank you Sir!

  114. @ Cassandra (Proteus circuit for PIC18):-
    All kind of detail is already uploaded on this blog and i donot have any other information related it which is not uploaded.
    The components list, coding, circuit diagram vary project to project, so you should start your work and try to develop all these stuf by your own instead of asking me to provide you.
    if you want to develop coding of PIC18 in proteus then do it, which is difficulty, i have no spare time for every one to do all of there project work. WHY people not do their work by their own.
    I am here to guid and help student where they are stuck and feel problem in progress further. I donot provide spoon feeding.
    so if you have design your project then send me, i will help you in areas where you are stoped.

  115. -Cassandra-

    Hi Sir,

    I have developed my design for this project..i am going to use the PIC18F458 with two probes as sensors instead of four..i have some doubts about the comparator though..i found that PIC18F458 comes with a built in comparator module for 2 analog i was wondering, can i replace the op amp in your circuit with the microcontroller's comparator?If your answer is yes, i need some help with the voltage divider connection to the probe and then to the microcontroller as i am stuck here..also do i still have to use the variable resistor connected to the probe?i need help on this..thank you sir

  116. @ Cassandra:-
    Send me your proposed circuit diagram and code for testing and comments.

  117. hi sir,
    i m a student from indonesia,i want to make a project on APIS.
    can u help me ???send for me complete source code (hex,C,ASM)!
    and may u send for me your simulated(diagram)on proteus???

    I must simulate this project then presentation it!!!

    and I require complete components list!!

    please help me !!!
    my email

  118. i need proteus program and program with extension .hex, can you help me, please.....

  119. i need proteus program and program wit extension .hex, i'm a college , can you help me please . . . !!!!!!!!!!!

  120. @ imam subekti (APIS project and simulation):-
    Then what will be you contrbution in your project if i should provide you all the stuf?????
    i think you should work hard to find and develop your required project and then if you come up with any problem you can discuss it with me or any expert.ok

  121. @ an_san (proteus program):-
    Haa haa
    i never see any program written in proteus ISIS sofar.
    What i know is, it is a good tool to make circuit diagram and then test or simulate the circuits or projects.
    The programming is different from circuit diagrams.
    You should study the proteus ISIS and then start your work with it.
    YOur question shows you never know about it.

  122. Sir,can U send me the details of this project.



  123. AoA

    I am a student from NUST. I have chosen this project as my semester project.Kindly email me the details ASAP.My id is:

    Thanking you in anticipation.

  124. Anyone having the complete details of the project-schematic,programmme,component list................pls forward
    Thannx & Regards,

  125. This comment has been removed by the author.

  126. Sir,I want the complete project report. moreover i want to know about the working of the sensor circuit

  127. Sir,
    Am a 3rd year ece student. I took APIS as my mini project. Can u send me aa detailed report to my id
    the most urgent hing s about the working of the sensors.

  128. Sir, pls consider me.. i am abin
    I hav doubt about the sensor used here. kindly put some details of it.

  129. I have followed your circuits and i am doing a similar project,however i am having problems on the programming part sir,can i have the full document please,my email is
    Thanks in advance SIR

  130. sir i am ece 4th year student and i want detail report on this project please can u help me out.

  131. Hello Sir,
    I am a student of embedded systems and I want to choose "Automatic Plant Sprinkler System" as my mini project. I am using A Rabbit processor to implement it in real time. So I request you to send me your APIS Automatic Plant Irrigation System with microcontroller AT89C2051" along with source code to my email, as soon as possible so that I will get some idea of the project to design for my processor.
    Thank you in advance,

  132. Hello Sir,
    I am a student of embedded systems and I want to choose "Automatic Plant Sprinkler System" as my mini project. I am using A Rabbit processor to implement it in real time. So I request you to send me your APIS Automatic Plant Irrigation System with microcontroller AT89C2051" along with source code to my email, as soon as possible so that I will get some idea of the project to design for my processor.
    Thank you in advance,

  133. hi sir,
    i m a ece student ,i want to make a project on APIS, using atmega16.
    can u help me ???send for me complete source code (hex,C,ASM)!
    and may u send for me , cirtuit diagramyour simulated(diagram)on proteus???

    and I require complete components list!!

    Amanpreet kaur
    please help me !!!
    my email

  134. sir i am student of final year Rohit yadav from hindustan college of science,mathura. I want 8051 based water irregation system by gsm control.kindly sent us detail and its mail id is ( ).
    thank u

  135. sir i am student of final year Rohit yadav from hindustan college of science,mathura. I want 8051 based water irregation system by gsm control.kindly sent us detail and its mail id is ( ).
    thank u

  136. hi sir
    i`m tariq,2nd year student mechatronics
    i just want to know that can we develop APIS automatic irrigation plant system by using micro-controller 18f4580 if
    could you please send me the program code and the circuit diagram to my email address
    as soon as possible
    please help me

  137. sir in the above program wht is the use of P1 = 255 and P2 = 255

  138. @ FeeL~At~HoMe (Tariq):
    My suggestion to you is please check the contactUs page and e-mail me if you need help and if you can pay fee.

  139. salam sir,
    im zawani an electrical student from uni tech interested in your project and i was wondering how can i interface with LCD to display temperature and moisture level.can u amel me the detail?

  140. @ ZAWANI for interfacing LCD with Microcontroller.
    Interfacing of liquid crystal display with micrcontroller is not a big issue, there are several post in this blog, if you go through these, you will notice, some hardware and software designs of LCD interfacing with 8051.
    any how you can conatcat me through messenger, yahoo(rghkk1) and skype (mc090201473).

  141. respected sir, i am last year student of b.e.e.c. from gujarat ,india.i have done intelligent irrigation system using 89s51.but now i am working on wireless automatic irrigation system but i can't get any idea that how to do it.i have to submit in very short please sir can you send me the circuit diagram,its working and source code on my gmail id sir please make sure that the ics are available in india..please sir reply

  142. respected sir
    i am EC last year student in Gujarat, India .i have done intelligent irrigation system using 89s51 which works manually.but now i want to do wireless automatic irrigation system but i don't have any idea that how do this project.i will be very thankful to you if you send me its circuit diagram,components list and source code that runs successfully.but please make sure that the components are available in India...i have very short time for this project and it is very important to please sir reply me soon

  143. Im from gec from gujarat
    im working on closed loop controlled automatic plant irrigation system using UController
    ^^^^^^IDEA ABOUT PROJECT^^^^^^
    i'll plant to divide d field in 4 part. In each ill put senser at suitable height...
    controlling action is done such that after filling water in one part up to defined height... control is transfer to 2nd & then 3rd & then 4th..
    1. ill know that null balance of comparator is some how difficult.. what ill do...???????
    2. how ill tranfer control to next part...???
    3. can additional features add...??? Which??
    4. ill want to know how i make step by step process..??
    ^^^^^^^^^ABOUT MYSELF^^^^^^
    Im dharmil shah... this is my final year project..
    i have nice idea but have lake of proper guidance..
    so help me my eid :
    after it motor is stopped...

  144. hi sir ,
    can u help me ???send for me complete source code (C or ASM)!
    and may u send for me your simulated(diagram)???

  145. hi sir ,
    can u help me ???send for me complete source code (C or ASM)!
    and may u send for me your simulated(diagram)???

  146. sir,
    can u tell me the field layout , length of wires reqd for implementation of APIS in 1 acre of land and hw many mmicrocontroller to use.
    mail to me at

  147. sir please send me it's proteus simulation at

  148. sir please provide me it's simulation at

  149. Hello Dr. Rana i am taking on a project in Automatic plant irrigation. I am hoping to use an ATMEGA 168 microcontroller. Could you please help me with the code.


  150. hello Dr. Rana for the project on automatic plant irrigation system using 8051 micro controller whould u help me the circuit diagram with its full c coding program at mail

  151. hello dr. rana even we are doing the same project on APIS, SO kindly forward the proteus simulation file and code file to my email id.


  153. hello sir i am doing this project as my final year project so would u kindly help me with would be kind of you if u could send me the report of it at

  154. Respected Sir,
    I'm a student in Computer and communication stream. I chose this project as my summer project and I want to ask you that can I use ATMEGA16 microcontroller and if it is possible what should be the code in pure C? I cannot use embedded C in it. Please email me your views at
    Thnak You

  155. Hello Sir,
    I am engineering student from IT branch i want to develop project using micro controller and java for farmer.
    1) I want to design system which start motor from home using computer.
    2) For that i will use JAVA for GUI.

    1) can we use java for embedded system like c?
    2) How we will transfer signals from remote computer to that machine.

    please help me

    thank you!!!

  156. sir please send me the project details of Automatic plant irrigation system . such as circuit diagram , block diagram , program, abstract , working, ,PCB layout .

  157. Sir/Madam,
    With due respect and humble,I Hatharki Basumatary of B.Tech final year student,urgently required the C code for automatic plant irrigation system.Please send me through my email

  158. aoa sir..i m final year student n i wana do this project as ma final year project with some can u plz help me regarding this ??

  159. Salam Dr Rana, I am EE students can u giving me about information like circuit, coding about this project. Tq


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EMULATOR (1) DS1285 (1) DS1307 program for microcontroller at89s51 or at89c2051 (1) DS1385 (1) DS1485 (1) DS1585 (1) DSP Library (1) DSP56ACD16 (1) DVD.CD (1) Data Bus Buffer (1) Data Types Used in C51 (1) Data acquisition Board (1) Data bus line 0 (LSB) (1) Design Considerations and Implications (1) Designing pressure transducer (1) Developers (1) Development of Industrial scale weather station (1) Difference between Simulator and Emulator (1) Differential linearity (1) Differential mode of communication (1) Digital 3-phase motor speed controller (1) Digital Clock Employing Memory Mapping (1) Digital Humidity Sensor (1) Digital Signal Capture (1) Digital Signal Processor (1) Digital Volume control for Inverter motor control (1) Displacement sensing mechanism (1) Display Data RAM (1) Display on or off control (1) Download Arduino Simulator free LCD Screen (1) Download and install Arduino GR (1) EEPROM with microcontroller at89s52 (1) Education (1) Eight LED interface with MCU 8051 (1) 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Temperature Humidity (1) Home Humidity Sensor (1) Home Theater Remote Control (1) How to write Data on LCD (1) Humidity Display and Humidity Transducer sensor (1) Humidity Sensing (1) Humidity Sensor (1) INCREMENT/DECREMENT ROUTINE for motor in assembly language (1) INTR (end of conversion) (1) INTRODUCTION of Automatic Controlled Furnace (1) IRED (1) ISo image file (1) Image burner (1) Implementation Details of Humidity sensing project (1) Industrial Humidity Sensor (1) Industrial valves controller (1) InfraRed Sensor Interface (1) Infrared emitting diode (1) Input Ouput Ports of Microcontroller 8051 (1) Instruction set of liquid crystal display (1) Instrumentation and Data Acquisition (1) Integral linearity (1) Intel’s 8-bit MCS-51 Family of Microcontrollers (1) Interface Humidity Sensor with 8051 Microcontroller (AT89C1) (1) Interface of 4 line LCD with 8051 (1) Interface of mobile phone with micro-controller (1) Interfacing large load bank with Microcontroller 8051 port expander (1) Interfacing of DAC0800 with Microcontroller 8051 (1) Interfacing the ADC0804 to the AT89C51 (1) Interfacing with the LM35 (Temperature Sensor) (1) Internal Ram Organization of 8052 Microcontroller (1) Interpreting on Emulator using Pro51 (1) Interrupts (1) Introduction of The Automatic Car Parking using 8051 (1) Introduction of moving message display MMD using 8051 (1) Introduction serial Port RS-232 (1) Introduction to 89C51 Microcontroller (1) Keil C51 program for interface of Graphic LCd with micro-controller (1) Keypad 7-Segment LED interface with Microcontroller 8051 (1) LCD (1) LCD MMD (1) LCD interface to MCU (1) LCD interface with micro-controller 8051 (1) LCD interfacing with Microcontroller 8051 (1) LCD moving message display (1) LED Display driver (1) LED Grow Light Technology is Much Improved (1) LED display (1) LED matrix (1) LM324 (1) LM35 (1) LPT3 (1) LSI displays alphanumeric characters (1) LVDT (1) Lighting Controls (1) Line PrinTer (LPT) devices (1) Liquid Crystal Display LCD Introduction (1) MAX 232 Interfacing with Microcontroller 8052 (1) MAX 232 level converter (1) MAX 232 serial communication (1) MCS-51 family microcontrollers (1) MCU-PC-serial-interface (1) MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY USING ATMEL 89C51 (1) MSp430 I2c (1) Mechanical methods (1) Memory of 8051 (1) Memory Model (1) Memory Organization (1) Memory mapping (1) Microchip PIC (1) Microcontroller 8051 Projects in c language (1) Microcontroller 8051 and adc (1) Microcontroller 89c52 (1) Microcontroller Applications (1) Microcontroller Circuits (1) Microcontroller Interface with PC parallel port (1) Microcontroller Port2 (1) Microcontroller data logger (1) Microcontroller to LCD (1) Microcontroller51 MCu 8051 LED interface (1) Microprocessor-Compatible (1) MixZing Music Player (1) Mode Selection (1) Modern DAC (1) Moisture Sensors Devices (1) Motor speed control circuits and projects (1) Moving Message Display (1) Multiplex 74ls138 74ls04 8051 16f877 (1) Multiplex LED seven segment diaplay with microcontroller interfacing 74ls138 74ls04 8051 16f877 (1) NAND (1) NOP in 8051 (1) NOR (1) NPN transistor (1) Non-insulated SCR (1) Nyquist A/D converters (1) Nyquist sampling criterion (1) OJ0800 DAC (1) ON-CHIP SERIAL PORT (1) OPAMP LM324 (1) Objective of the project based on microcontroller 8051 (1) On-Chip Clock Generator (1) Open (1) Operational Amplifier (1) Optical Sensor Subroutine (1) Optical sensor (1) Optocoupler and diac MOC3041 (1) PC (1) PC parallel port (1) PC side program for interfacing (1) PCM codec ICs or DSP interface ICs (1) PERIPHERAL INTERFACE PROJECT OF PRESSURE MONITORING (1) PGAs (1) PIC I2C (1) PROGRAM MEMORY (1) PWM with microcontroller 8051 for SCR or triac power control (1) Peripherals Keypad (1) Philips PDS51 development board (1) Pin assignment of liquid crystal display (1) Potentiometric (1) Potentiometric transducer (1) Pressure Sensing System (1) Pressure gauges and switches (1) Pressure monitoring with microcontroller 8051 (1) Pressure sensing and controlling (1) Pressure sensor and transducer (1) Printer Port's addresses in the BIOS Data Area (1) Program counter address (1) Programmable Gain Amplifiers (1) Programming Aspects (1) Programming Aspects of Moving message display project using 8051assembly language program for lcd (1) Project Description (1) Properties of graphite (1) Pseudo-Absolute Encoder (1) RAM of MCU (1) RAM of microcontroller (1) ROM-to-RAM ratio (1) RS-232 Level Converter (1) RS-232 Level Converters (1) RS-232 Standard (1) RS-232 communication (1) RS-232 serial communication (1) RS232 with 8051 (1) RS232 and Microcontroller 80s52 (1) RS232 and microcontroller schematics and C code (1) RS232 communication (1) RS232 serial communication (1) Receive Data (1) Receive Interrupt of 8051 (1) Register Banks of 8052 Microcontroller (1) Relative Humidity Project (1) Reluctive (1) Remote apps for PC and Mac (1) Remotely view (1) Resonant Wire (1) Routine interfacing LCD with 8051 Programmer's Corner. (1) Rs-232 smoke analyzer (1) SAKURA BOARD (1) SBUF and SCON (1) SBUF register (1) SCR control (1) SERIAL PORT REGISTERS (1) SMS Based Controlling Machines Using GSM Mobile and microcontroller 8051 (1) SN7447 (1) SN7447AN decoder (1) SN74LS373 Latch with 3-State Outputs and interface with microcontroller (1) Schematic Circuit Diagram Speedometer Accurate measurement of speed (1) Science/Research (1) Scratchpad Registers (1) Security Camera Systems (1) Selection of Humidity sensor or transducer or transmitter (1) Sensor (1) Sensors (1) Serial Communication (1) Serial Communication RS-232 (1) Serial Communication microcontroller to PC (1) Serial Interfacing of Microcontroller 8051 in Automatic Car Parking Project (1) Serial or Parallel (1) Servo Actuator and DC Motor. 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What are HEX files? 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